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Project Management Professional (5th Edition)
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The project governance approach should be described in the:
change control plan
statement of work
project management plan
A primary function of a project management office is to support project managers in a
variety of ways, including which of the following?
Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates, and other shared
Acting as the project sponsor by providing financial resources to the project
Resolving issues and change management within a shared governance structure
Aligning organizational/strategic direction that affects project and program goals
Decomposition, rolling wave planning, and templates are all tools and techniques for
which of the following?
Estimate Activity Durations
QUESTION: 906 272
The run chart created during the Perform Quality Control process on a project is used
to show the:
relationship between two variables
data points plotted in the order in which they occur
most common cause of problems in a process
frequency of occurrence
An output of the Manage Project Team process is:
project management plan updates
project staff assignments updates
team performance assessments
resource calendar updates
Within project integration management, the statement of work (SOW) references
which aspects of the project?
Strategic plan, business need, and product scope description
Contract, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets
Business plan, project management plan, and project schedule
Product lifecycle, business objective, and management strategy
The CPI is .92, and the EV is US$172,500. What is the actual cost of the project?
A project can be defined as a:
Temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result
Temporary endeavor that produces repetitive outputs
Permanent endeavor undertaken to create
a unique product, service, or result
Permanent endeavor that produces repetitive outputs
The Create WBS process is in which of the following Project Management Process
Monitoring and Controlling
The specific technique for identifying a probl
em, discovering the causes that lead to
it, and developing preventive actions is:
Use of quality checklists
Root cause analysis
Use of matrix diagrams
Answer: C 274
At which stage of the project should certain factors such as the unavailability of
human resources due to constraint be considered?
Monitoring and Controlling
Which of the following are examples of interactive communication?
Which of the following are inputs into the Administer Procurements process?
Payment systems, organizational process assets update, and claims administration
Inspections and audits, contract change
control system, and project management
Procurement documents, performance reports, and approved change requests
Project documents, seller proposals, and payment systems
Which characteristic is unique to project work and does not apply to operational
Performed by individuals 275
B. Limited by constraints
Performed to achieve organizational objectives
Which of the following is an input to the Plan Risk Responses process?
Risk urgency assessment
Organizational process assets
Schedule management plan
Project Management Process Groups are linked by:
the outputs they produce
discrete or one-time events
the project management plan
common tools and techniques
Which of the following is a means of reaching a group decision in which everyone
agrees on a single course of action?
Answer: D 276
A project managers authority is limited within which of the following organizational
C. Weak Matrix
D. Balanced Matrix
Answer: C 277
PMI PMP Exam (Project Management Professional - PMP) Detailed Information
The emergence of the cloud and mobile devices has allowed project managers to better incorporate technology into their daily lives. There are now thousands of choices available. Here are 6 ways technology is improving project management
1. Constant Connectivity
Mobile applications, social media, and the cloud are constantly improving the way that people connect with each other. They allow for the easy exchange of information and connect people in ways that before were not possible. People can access documents anywhere and in real-time with digital drop boxes and shared folders. Restricted groups can allow for communication quickly and efficiently. Projects can be managed in different places and at different times without the stress of security of firewall policies. These technical tools are improving both processes and the communication necessary to effectively manage and complete projects.
2. Seamless Workflows
With new project management software integration workflows are being optimized and made much more seamless. One example is AtTask, which is an online work management software that integrates Microsoft SharePoint and Outlook, Atlassian JIRA, and ProofHQ. Allowing these important tools to work together increases the opportunity for collaboration and makes life easier. It is very important for project managers to stay up to date on the software available as it continues to evolve. Companies expect project manager to be technologically focused and savvy. It is important that they are able to adapt and learn new skills quickly.
3. Cloud Security
Cloud security must be a priority and this can change the way that projects are managed, especially for IT project managers. When data is on the cloud, vulnerabilities are created. Data breaches can be costly and people want more control over their data. The physical protection of data rests on the shoulders of the company storing the data while the legal responsibility of protecting the data is with the company who owns the data. There needs to be more advances in securing data remotely.
4. More Tools for a Variety of Uses
Project management tools are necessary to increase collaboration and connectivity as we said before. However, these tools also need to be flexible for a variety of users. Project managers need to be careful when determining the correct tool to reach different stakeholders. People need to be able to interact in the way they are most comfortable. This could be technology like instant messaging, phone calls, web conferences, online forums, wikis, whiteboards, or document collaboration tools. You also want to use tools that have the support of your organization.
Another challenge for project managers in implementing varied technology is to ensure that they have stakeholder buy-in. They are depending on other people to use and manage the tools. There may be a hot technology that is currently trending, but that is meaningless if you cannot get people engaged with using it.
5. Uniting Virtual Teams
The internet has long been an ideal place to unite virtual teams from teams that operate across town to around the world. This type of technology will continue to be the future for most organizations. Many current teams that operate across countries even speak different languages and work in different cultural environments. Communication needs to remain precise and this means that project managers need to develop clear technology standards, policies, and procedures. Technology is excellent but is only as good as the people using it.
This infographic explains how clear communication contributes to successful project management:
6. The Internet of Things
The Internet of Things continues evolve and allow us to gather, monitor, and transmit data in a variety of innovative and interesting ways. This can impact everything from parking spaces to refrigerators or staplers. There is also a growing investment in these types of technologies. For example, 54% of top performing organizations say they plan to invest more in the Internet of Things. This is definitely a trend that project managers need to keep a close eye on.
Technology can improve our lives while making our jobs easier which is why it is so important to project managers. If a project manager does not pay attention to the emerging technologies they will be doing a disservice to their projects and organizations. By understanding the 6 ways technology is impacting project management they will be better equipped to understand these impacts and make positive implementations in the future.
How project management software could be the emperor's new clothes
When I work with companies on project management assessments, I often hear software systems getting blamed for failures, delays and problems. They're either too complex or badly aligned to process. Either that or I hear that some other new system would fix everything. Indeed, that's what the sellers of such solutions promise — a golden ticket to project management success, the silver bullet for all your problems.
Some actually deliver, but when they don’t, the software itself is often blamed. In my experience though, it is more the fact that it takes valuable project management time to update and maintain in order for it to provide useful information — time that "should be spent" project managing. Indeed, this the problem with reporting in general. The challenge for any software system is that they rely on bottom-up input of data — real-time reporting by those delivering the project management. This often leads to a duplication of data input and if the process is not well defined and understood a resentment around the need to do it in the first place.
So what is the purpose of a projectprogram or portfolio application?
It should above all else provide a single view of the truth and importantly a truth that is trusted by everyone across the organization. This can be achieved in many ways — paper, spreadsheets, verbally even — but there comes a point where the environment becomes so complex due to volume and project interdependencies that a system is often introduced to assist with the organizational governance and management tasks — contribution to strategic objectives, resource and demand management, budgetary control and much more. But they are organizational governance, they are organization wide, covering multiple projects, programs and initiatives.
Much of the project management software you can buy is brilliant. It can make information gathering and input easier, and give you swish single view dashboard and fancy reporting. However, I often see all of this done just as well on spreadsheets or Microsoft project, in fact, one project manager I know is getting fabulous results using Google Sheets. She is leveraging regular spreadsheet features and the ability for multiple users to collaborate on spreadsheets in real time across a huge geographical area. It even has an instant messaging function so they can live chat. Her CIO is thrilled by the improved project efficiency and the cost saving versus the previous project management software — Google Sheets is free!
The secret to success here though isn't Google Sheets nor would it have been a swanky project management software package if that had been her choice.
No. The secret to success here is the fundamentals of project management, executed brilliantly and consistently. So by all means, explore your need for potential software solutions — but bear in mind that there may be cheaper (or free) alternatives available and also that until you have all the fundamentals in place. Without them, no system or software will deliver the desired results.
The fundamentals are the foundations on which you build and they include:
The benefits of good governance include better return on investment, better staff motivation (everyone knows what's expected) and most importantly you get to avoid many of the common reasons for failure.
The governance of IT projects and portfolios is crucial as it gives you the necessary controls and the working parameters that will deliver success plus it gives your stakeholders reassurance that that money in the budget is being well spent.
Without great governance your project management software system simply will not deliver its full potential — how can it? Any software system responds to how you operate it. If you haven't got great disciplines in other areas you won't have them with your system. As with most parts of the project management process, governance can be bought in from the "as a Service" market.
Initiation, planning, execution, control, delivery, exit, assessment and evaluation.
From memory, these are the words on the wall of the Google Sheets-using project manager I mentioned earlier. It illustrates neatly how process connects together each project activity and, I believe, creates an oasis of calm to return to when inevitable project stresses arise.
To be fair, everyone working in IT project management knows the value of process — it's how well you stick to your process when your project throws you a curve ball that counts.
Your project management team should internally digest the project management processes and make them a part of their DNA. With proper process whatever system or software you opt for will have a decent fighting chance of playing a part in your success. Without process, it has little or no chance. It's as stark as that.
Bad communications are often a major contributing factor in the failure of an IT project.
Recent examples I've seen include failure to communicate decisions made at approval gates, lack of communication with stakeholders who became disillusioned and almost pulled the plug on a project that was actually delivering and a simple lack of communication of who is expected to do what.
Used properly, your system can help here. Remember the "live chat" function of Google sheets? That one simple thing improved communication for one project manager. How could you improve yours?
Do you waste time hunting through your inbox, for example? By keeping all project communication in one place, "bad comms" can be dropped into the recycle bin for good.
Have you ever estimated the time it will take to complete an IT project and been woefully wrong with your guess? Have you ever run out of budget? Do you sometimes find allocation of resources a problem?
It's OK, it happens to everyone.
The truth is that there are project management software solutions that can help with this but, ironically, unless you are good at planning they will only deliver a small percentage of their potential value.
If planning is a recurring issue you should consider addressing the root of the problem. Get an independent project management assessment or consider buying in "Project Management as a Service."
5. Organizational capability
Last year I read of a project that had missed a deadline because the project manager had forgotten about it!
Sure, there are tools that can help with getting organized, but if you forget a deadline you really should question whether you're in the right job or not!
Project management software can help you get organized, but so too do other cheaper options.
Frankly, getting organized is a state of mind. It's the consistent execution of repeatable habits that create workable schedules, hit project milestones and deliver successful outcomes. Any software or system will only ever be as good as the operator! Remember, GIGO!
In conclusion, investing in some project management software could help but if the vendor is telling you it will turn you into a world-class project manager — buyer beware. Buying project management software will no more turn you into a project management legend than buying a treadmill will turn you into Usain Bolt. It's what you do on it, day in, day out, that gets results like that.
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Project management goal: Track progress
When you track the progress of your schedule, two things will help you the most:
With these two steps, you have the best chance of leading a successful project.
For more articles in this series of project management instructional guides, see The project management road map.
Project management tips before you start . . .
Whether you’re new to project management or a seasoned expert, you’re likely to go through three steps when you track progress.
Create a baseline for you project After you’ve created your initial schedule, create a baseline for it. A baseline is a snapshot of your project before it begins. As the project progresses, you can compare its progress to the baseline.
Review the progress of your schedule regularly Get in the habit of reviewing the progress of your schedule at least weekly. If you wait until the middle of your project, you might be too late to solve schedule problems.
Take action sooner rather than later Projects tend to spiral out of control quickly once problems show up. When your project begins to deviate from how you thought it would go, take action immediately.
Save a baseline
When your boss asks how your project is doing, the last thing you want to say is “I don’t know.” Avoid this fate by setting a baseline as a snapshot of your original schedule. After you set a baseline, you can begin to check the progress of your schedule.
Update the status of tasks quickly
You can quickly update task status with only a single click on the ribbon.
View the progress of your schedule on the Gantt chart
Track a project by watching how Gantt bars change as work progresses.
View project activities on a timeline
Stakeholders sometimes want a big picture of project progress. The project timeline gives them a snapshot of key tasks and milestones. Just drop it into a PowerPoint slide, print it, or email it for an instant progress report
View progress information with a visual report
You can create graphical progress reports with bar charts, pie charts, and more. If the report doesn’t look right, you can customize it in seconds.
View earned value status reports
Earned value reports help you answer questions like, “Looking at the amount of work done so far in this project, how much money were we supposed to have spent?” Or "Will we finish on time?"
View project status on a SharePoint site
Your team members can view the project schedule and update their progress in SharePoint—without using Microsoft Project.
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Top 9 Vendors in the Online Project Management Software Market from 2016 to 2020: Technavio
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The best way for a business to take market share is to innovate and create processes and products for their customers that their competitors just can’t offer. The best way to improve your project management ability is for your company to become innovative about how you manage projects.
Wikipedia says “Innovation is defined simply as a new idea, device, or method. However, innovation is often also viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs.”
Sometimes people don’t see project management as “innovative”, because it is usually a defined process that is very similar for each project. This mentality sees project management as a “cookie cutter” approach to handling each project the same way. This view of project management is often driven by an outdated view of project management as a rigid framework for strict control of a project, the management of assigned people, as well as all of the processes that are attached to project management.
Once you have decided what the desired outcome of the project should be, you have to plan how to take your limited resources and get the best possible product. Everyone will agree that planning is very important, and planning usually takes the most of the time of the assigned to your project.
When planning your project and attempting to be more innovative, it is important that you establish flexible goals and timelines that allow your team time to develop their ideas and incorporate those new ideas into your final product. If you don’t give the team enough time to try new methods or research new ideas, your product will lack any effort to innovate.
Mistakes can be seen as failure, or an opportunity to try something else. If your company is going to innovate your project team has to be encouraged to try new things, and learn that failure is acceptable. If you have rigid deadlines and no flexibility in our milestones, you are killing the thinking sprit of your team, which kills true innovation.
Teach your team that failure will always be viewed as an opportunity to learn and grow. Your team should see their role as creative assets that find new solutions, not warm bodies assigned to do the same thing over and over like a factor worker.
Make sure you communicate with the entire team to let them know what is expected from each member, including management. Your team should be encouraged to share ideas and collaborate to create something truly better than anyone before.
When you unleash innovation inside your company, amazing things can begin to happen. Total freedom can also breed confusion and lack of structure. Your team must maintain some perspective and understanding of the desired project outcome. Make sure the team is allowed freedom to innovate, but stick to your timelines, milestones, and desired project deliverables.
Measure the teams success based on their ability to create results that benefit the project and the company.
If your teams creates innovation and your project is a success, make sure management recognizes how your different approach to project management helped create the environment that made that innovation possible. You might not be successful the first time you strive for an innovative approach to project management, but you should look to improve our processes over time.