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IBMSPSSMBPDA exam Dumps Source : IBM SPSS Modeler - Business(R) Partner Data Analyst Associate
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Test Name : IBM SPSS Modeler - Business(R) Partner Data Analyst Associate
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Q&A : 25 Real Questions
IBM these days announced that it's enhancing a few of its existing utility items with the Apache Spark open-source information processing engine, including the SPSS predictive analytics software.
IBM purchased SPSS for $1.2 billion in 2009. SPSS itself all started at Stanford institution in 1968 and is known in statistics classes at universities.
IBM is peculiarly incorporating Spark into SPSS Modeler and SPSS Analytic Server, a spokesman advised VentureBeat in an electronic mail.
Spark is additionally being applied to IBM’s BigInsights, Streams, and DataWorks application, in line with a press release.
The Sparkification of IBM comes after large Blue introduced an enormous commitment to the open-source software in June. at the time, IBM announced Spark as a provider on its Bluemix cloud; that service is now commonly attainable.
IBM has made greater than 60 contributions to Spark since the June announcement, according to the commentary.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is essentially the most common malignant extracranial strong tumor in babies. more than half of pediatric NBs present with disseminated metastases at preliminary prognosis, and most of them are in an superior stage with poor prognoses. chance assessment in NB depends on the complete analysis of facts regarding scientific and biologic features. toddlers’s Oncology group (COG) has dependent the possibility stratification system counting on five traits: overseas Neuroblastoma Staging equipment (INSS) stage, affected person age at prognosis, MYCN gene fame, DNA index, and foreign Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) (London et al., 2005; Shimada et al., 1999; Peuchmaur et al., 2003). specific chromosomal aberrations, such as the 11q loss, have been introduced to the foreign Neuroblastoma risk group (INRG) classification device (Cohn et al., 2009). in keeping with the COG risk stratification gadget, three groups were centered: low-chance, intermediate-chance, and high-risk businesses. Most stage 1 and a pair of NB patients (usually in the low-risk community) can also be cured through surgery alone and have a brilliant prognosis, which has been a consensus global. although, the medication for stage 3 and four NB patients, specially these within the excessive-risk community, is still hard, and the influence is dismal. no matter if gross complete resection (GTR) of the simple tumor can render average survival (OS) longer in these refractory sufferers than in these with subtotal tumor resection (STR) is still doubtful. several reviews pronounced that GTR might bring benefits to medical results in these patients. although, others have drawn contrary conclusions (McGregor et al., 2005; Fischer et al., 2017; Simon et al., 2013; Englum et al., 2015). studies about clinicopathological points and MYCN fame in a cohort of NB patients and the prognosis range of distinct MYCN status and surgical strategies (STR vs. GTR) in stage three and four NB patients in China have rarely been reported.
Herein, we collected 275 NBs between 2010 and 2015 in our center and made a retrospective study of the clinicopathological elements, MYCN reputation, surgical management, comply with-up, and prognosis. Our study highlights the prognostic values of MYCN reputation and different surgical methods in stage 3 and four sufferers in China.substances and methods clinical ethics
This retrospective cohort analyze become approved by means of the ethical Committee of toddlers’s health center of Fudan college (no. 2017-217). The types of consent were got from the patients’ folks.Archive assessment
2 hundred and seventy-five NBs had been retrieved from the clinical statistics of little ones’s medical institution of Fudan institution between 2010 and 2015. We collected such statistics as intercourse, age, chief complaints, lesion website, isotope bone scan, ultrasound imaging, radiological finding, bone marrow biopsy, MYCN reputation, histopathological diagnosis, INPC, INSS stage, surgical treatment, and observe-up.
MYCN fame became evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization study and analyzed in accordance with the international consensus by using INRG Biology Committee for neuroblastoma molecular diagnostics (Ambros et al., 2009). A >four-fold boost in MYCN signal compared with a reference probe become diagnosed as MYCN amplification. all of the sufferers have been assigned to high-, intermediate-, and low-risk classes in line with the COG possibility stratification standards. for those that had complete the treatment route, one outpatient clinic consult with for each and every 12 months become requested. In these visits they had been carefully evaluated with the aid of physical examination and imaging assessments. patients who failed to visit on time have been contacted by using telephone, mail, and e-mail for collection of facts concerning the little ones’s fitness and the examine consequences in native hospitals.Statistical evaluation
the entire facts had been gathered and filed in a database. A descriptive analysis became performed for clinical, pathological, and biological points, surgical administration, and observe-up. Statistical evaluation become processed by way of IBM SPSS version 22.0 (IBM enterprise. Armonk, new york, usa). OS changed into defined because the time from preliminary analysis to demise or remaining follow-up if sufferers survived. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves had been compared with log-rank verify. Cox proportional risks model was used for univariate and multivariate survival analyses. All statistical tests had been two-sided and P values <0.05 had been considered as statistically big.outcomes medical characteristics
scientific and pathological traits of 275 circumstances were summarized in table 1. The cohort had a just a little male predominance with a male-to-female ratio of 1.6:1. The age latitude became 5 days to fifteen years. there were ninety childish NBs. The suggest and median ages have been 30 months and 23 months, respectively. both leading primary tumor sites have been the adrenal gland and mediastinum (table 1), and others covered retroperitoneal sympathetic chain (n = 5), pelvic cavity (n = 2), kidney (n = 2), neck (n = 1), oropharynx (n = 1), and orbit (n = 1). although, no primary tumor turned into detected in two cases with metastases in liver and bone marrow, respectively. Six sufferers had bilateral adrenal neuroblastomas. essentially the most regular chief complaints were belly mass (88/275), fever (38/275), belly pain (37/275), lower extremity pain (26/275), coughing (25/275), and abdominal distention (25/275). much less common signs included head and neck mass, skin mass, dyspnea, hepatomegaly, jaundice, and proptosis. essentially the most average distant metastatic websites had been bone and bone marrow (desk 1). different rare metastatic locations protected the mind, lung, pleura, orbit, paraspine, pancreas, spleen, and posterior eyeball.table 1:
Clinicopathological points and MYCN repute in 275 NBs.points quantity MYCN-amplified MYCN-unamplified sex Male one hundred seventy 39 131 feminine one zero five 20 eighty five Age(months) <18 124 20 104 18–60 102 33 sixty nine ≥60 forty nine 6 forty three Grade of differentiation Undifferentiated 89 37 fifty two Poorly differentiated 163 22 141 Differentiating 23 0 23 Histology Favorable 183 nine174 unfavourable ninety two 50 42 INSS stage 1 44 1 forty three 2 nine1 eight 3 sixty two eleven fifty one four 143 forty five 98 4S 17 1 16 possibility neighborhood Low 55 1 54 Intermediate 54 0 54 excessive 166 fifty eight 108 fundamental site Adrenal gland 221 fifty four 167 Mediastinum 40 2 38 Others 14 three 11 distant metastatic web page Bone 109 28 81 Bone marrow 84 23 sixty one Lymph node 35 8 27 Liver 36 11 25 epidermis 21 6 15 Others 49 19 30 Pathological features and MYCN popularity
Pathological diagnosis turned into determined in keeping with the overseas Neuroblastoma Pathology Committee system (Peuchmaur et al., 2003; Cohn et al., 2009). The distribution of grade of differentiation and favorable/unfavourable neighborhood is listed in desk 1 and poorly differentiated NBs and favorable histology NBs made up nearly all of the 275 instances. MYCN amplification accounted for 21.5% of the overall circumstances. Non-MYCN-amplification covered MYCN profit (n = 7) and wild-category (n = 209). MYCN amplification changed into exceptionally standard for stage 3 and 4 sufferers, but very infrequent in stage 1, 2, and 4S patients. the vast majority of the MYCN-amplified situations seemed in high-chance community (fifty eight/fifty nine, 98.3%) and UH group (50/59, eighty four.7%). all of the MYCN-amplified situations have been both undifferentiated or poorly differentiated subtype. Non-MYCN-amplification changed into observed within the contemporaneous seventy seven ganglioneuroblastomas and 55 ganglioneuromas in our center.Surgical management, follow-up, and prognosis
The accepted concepts of treatment in our center had been surgical resection on my own for the low-possibility community, surgical resection with chemotherapy for the intermediate-chance group, and multimodal remedy for the excessive-possibility community. This covered surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and autologous stem mobilephone transplantation (ASCT). Anti-GD2 immunotherapy was now not used at the moment in our core on account of its unavailability in China. The chemotherapeutic routine changed into consistent with the COG chemotherapy protocols for intermediate-possibility group (COG A3961) and high-chance neighborhood (COG A3973). Radiation therapy changed into administered to the high-risk community. ASCT became not normal during this sequence as a result of economic overload and handiest carried out in selectively 14 superior-stage sufferers whose parents may afford the expenses.
all the patients at stage 1 and 2 aside from two with MYCN amplification (one at each stage) bought GTR alone without any other remedy, and had been all adventure-free within the follow-up. In those two sufferers with MYCN amplification, the tumor recurred a short while after GTR, so chemotherapy changed into administered and one of the patients also underwent radiation remedy in accordance with excessive-chance protocols. The GTR rate was one hundred% for these at stages 1 and a couple of in our analyze. For stage 4S patients, 13 situations together with two sufferers who had the mass enlargement within the wait-and-see approach obtained GTR of basic tumor and low-dose chemotherapy, three patients decided to wait and notice and spontaneous tumor regression was recorded after biopsy, and one patient refused additional remedy after biopsy and was misplaced in the follow-up. The GTR rate turned into a hundred% for those at stage 4S who chose to obtain surgical removal of basic tumor. finished therapy changed into performed for stage three and four patients who were within the high-risk community. The standard situation of stage 3 and 4 sufferers become frequently worse than that of stage 1 and a pair of patients at preliminary presentation and the adjoining organs and main blood vessels had been constantly adherent to the tumor or encased by using the tumor, which made GTR very elaborate. Twenty-four patients at ranges three and 4 underwent tumor biopsy and chemotherapy devoid of surgical resection. different surgical methods (GTR or STR) had been administered in the relaxation 169 patients (Fig. 1): GTR (n = 111) together with fundamental GTR and delayed GTR after biopsy and chemotherapy; STR (n = fifty eight) together with fundamental STR and delayed STR after biopsy and chemotherapy. The GTR expense changed into sixty six.0% for stage 3 sufferers and 65.5% for stage four sufferers whose fogeys favorite the surgical approach. No surgical procedure-related loss of life became noticed in all the sufferers. very few surgical problems had been observed.determine 1: Stage three and four affected person circulate diagram.
Thirteen sufferers had been excluded from the evaluation of observe-up because they'd rejected additional medication after particular analysis through biopsy or GTR, so the analysis of comply with-up was a summary of 262 patients. The comply with-up intervals ranged from half a month to a hundred months (commonplace 40.6 months and median forty.0 months). The three-12 months and five-yr OS rates are listed in desk 2 and that they were lessen for stage three and four patients. The median OS estimate turned into 15.0 (±1.6) months (ninety five% CI [11.8–18.2]) for amplified group. The changes among Kaplan–Meier survival curves for distinct ranges or distinctive MYCN popularity (unamplified vs. amplified) were statistically significant (each P < .001 by means of log-rank verify) (Figs. 2A and 2B ). The median OS estimate for MYCN amplified group was 24.0 (±11.9) months (95% CI [0.6–47.4]) for stage 3 patients. The median OS estimates for amplified and unamplified groups at stage four had been 14.0 (±2.three) months (ninety five% CI [9.4–18.6]) and 53.0 (±3.7) months (ninety five% CI [45.7–60.3]), respectively. The modifications among Kaplan–Meier survival curves for different MYCN reputation corporations at ranges three or four had statistical value (P = .012 and P<.001 with the aid of log-rank check, respectively) (Figs. 2C and 2d). As for the three-12 months and five-12 months OS cost estimates the stage three and four sufferers still had the worst efficiency. The three-year and 5-12 months survival fee estimates were seventy nine.eight% and 70.8% for the MYCN unamplified neighborhood, and 22% and 18.3% for the amplified neighborhood, respectively.table 2:
The three-12 months and five-12 months OS quotes of 262 NBs in distinct INSS levels.INSS levelNo three-yr OS rate 5-12 months OS expense 1 44 a hundred% one hundred% 2 988.9% 88.9% 3 fifty eight seventy two.4% 66.9% 4 a hundred thirty five 50.1% 33.eight% 4S sixteen a hundred% a hundred% determine 2: The Kaplan–Meier survival curves for NB patients (n = 262) with distinctive levels and distinctive MYCN status, stage 3 sufferers (n = 58) with distinct MYCN popularity, and stage 4 patients (n = one hundred thirty five) with different MYCN fame. (A–B) The alterations in Kaplan–Meier survival curves for NB patients (n = 262) with diverse ranges (A) and distinct MYCN reputation (B) confirmed statistical significance (each P < .001 by log-rank look at various). (C–D) The assessment of Kaplan-Meier survival curves for diverse MYCN status organizations at stage 3 (C, n = 58) and 4 (D, n = 135) had statistical significance (P = .012 and P < .001 with the aid of log-rank check, respectively).
The median OS estimates for STR neighborhood and MYCN amplified group for 169 stage three and 4 patients were 27.0 (±eleven.6) months (ninety five% CI [4.2–49.8]) and 15.0 (±four.9) months (95% CI [5.4–24.6]), respectively. The variations between Kaplan–Meier survival curves for distinctive surgical procedure companies or diverse MYCN popularity companies had statistical value (P = .009 and P < .001 via log-rank examine, respectively) in those patients (Figs. 3A and 3B). The univariate and multivariate analyses via Cox regression analyses were depicted in table three. the former analysis printed statistically enormous variables included INSS stage, risk community, grade of differentiation, FH/UH, MYCN fame, and sugical strategies. in the multivariate Cox model distinct surgical strategies (STR vs. GTR) and diverse MYCN popularity (unamplified vs. amplified) still showed statistically giant variations (P = .047 and P = .001, respectively) and that they had been the impartial variables influencing the OSs. STR had a excessive relative risk compared with GTR (HR = 1.590,ninety five% CI [1.006–2.513]).figure three: The Kaplan-Meier survival curves within the 169 stage three and 4 NB patients with distinct surgical strategies (STR vs. GTR) and diverse MYCN status. (A–B) The ameliorations in Kaplan–Meier survival curves for (A) distinctive surgery agencies and (B) distinctive MYCN repute confirmed statistical significance (P = .009 and P < .001 with the aid of log-rank test, respectively) within the 169 stage 3 and four sufferers. desk 3:
Univariate and multivariate analyses of OS charges in the 169 stage 3 and 4 patients by way of Cox regression model.Variable Univariate analysis Multivariate evaluation P HR ninety five% CI P HR ninety five% CI Age one year 1 1 12–60 months .022 2.729 1.159–6.426 .544 .674 .188–2.410 ≥60 months .039 2.594 1.049–6.415 .599 .691 .174–2.743 intercourse (feminine vs. male) .709 .914 .570–1.466 .968 1.010 .616–1.657 website Adrenal gland 1 Mediastinum .one hundred thirty .524 .227–1.210 Others .868 .918 .334–2.524 INSS stage (4 vs. 3) .002 2.451 1.408-four.266 .262 1.398 .778-2.512 risk neighborhood(high-possibility vs. intermediate-chance) .000 10.005 three.a hundred and forty–31.873 .007 7.829 1.752–34.983 Grade of differentiation Undifferentiated subtye 1 1 Poorly differentiated subtype .005 .519 .330–.817 .794 .931 .546–1.587 Differentiating subtype .035 .118 .016–.863 .807 .735 .062–eight.695 FH/UH (FH vs UH) .003 .313 .143–.682 .874 1.a hundred and ten .308–3.996 MYCN repute (Unamplificaction vs. amplification) .000 .247 .154–.394 .001 .357 .196-.651 ASCT (No vs. yes) .193 1.557 .799–3.032 Radiation (No vs. sure) .one hundred and five .678 .423–1.085 Surgical strategies(STR vs. GTR) .011 1.794 1.143–2.817 .047 1.590 1.006–2.513 dialogue
Most scientific stories into NBs had been conducted in Western nations or Japan, and the criterion on prognosis, risk stratification, and treatment protocols turned into based by means of COG and INRG in response to these studies. There isn't any really good and collaborative research institute majoring in NB in China, and reports on a large collection of chinese NBs have been amazing. The three main simple tumor websites had been the adrenal gland (47%–50%), different stomach websites (27%–29%), and thoracic websites (15%–16%) tested via two massive collection reviews (Vo et al., 2014; Berthold et al., 2017). The main tumor original sites in our look at had been the adrenal gland (eighty.four%), thoracic websites (14.5%), and other abdominal websites (three.3%). The proportion of NBs at stage 4 in our center become 52% a bit of greater than about forty% mentioned by way of the INRG database (Cohn et al., 2009). Most far away metastatic websites had been bone and bone marrow in keeping with different experiences (Berthold et al., 2017; Morgenstern et al., 2016). This series supported many of the clinicopathological aspects published through previous studies, and we speculate that refined modifications may well be partially as a result of geographical and racial elements.
MYCN popularity includes amplification, gain, and wild-class. MYCN amplification is an impressive prognostic element for NBs regardless of different elements, equivalent to age, staging, INPC, and genetic aberrations of 1p and 11q, and it has regarded in about 20% of NBs and about 38% of all stage four patients (Berthold et al., 2017; Maris, 2010). Two fresh huge collection reports from COG and Germany confirmed the incidence of MYCN amplification in NBs become about 18% (Berthold et al., 2017; Campbell et al., 2017). The incidence of MYCN amplification in our series became about 21.5%, very near that within the previous experiences. Its mighty relationship with adverse histology, excessive-risk community, advanced stage, and terrible OS fees in our analyze verified its magnitude in possibility stratification and influence prediction. besides the fact that children, Wang et al. (2013) suggested that the proportion of MYCN amplification became 13.5% in an extra regional core in northern China, which advised it might have regional diversity in chinese NB sufferers. both basic renal NBs in our analyze all had MYCN amplification. MYCN amplification in stage 1, 2, and 4S NBs is unusual. only three situations were accompanied in our series, and they regularly had a better probability of relapse in comparison with the counterparts without MYCN amplification. Bagatell et al. (2009) reported 87 (three%) of the total 2660 NBs at ranges 1 and 2 had MYCN amplified tumors, and they had much less favorable OS than those with non-amplified tumors. No consensus has been reached regarding the significance of MYCN gain. Campbell et al. (2017) suggested 133 (2.8%) of 4672 NBs had MYCN profit, and MYCN profit changed into linked to an inferior prognosis. although, different results were said by way of Wang et al. (2013), Souzaki et al. (2011) and Spitz et al. (2004). The amount of MYCN profit in our collection turned into so small that we could not derive any constructive assistance.
surgery is the mainstay for stage 1 and stage 2 NBs, and GTR has proven adequate influence in these kinds of patients. This has been confirmed in many studies, including this one (Pinto et al., 2015). For stage 4S patients, fundamental tumor resection is not mandatory as a result of other treatment strategies corresponding to wait-and-see and low-dose chemotherapy by myself after biopsy can also be beneficial. There is not any clear hole within the OS quotes at all levels between our examine and previous reviews. youngsters, the 5-year OS fee in sufferers with MYCN amplification (most at levels three and four) was simplest 18.three% in our look at, far decrease than that in previous reports (33%–34% for Japan and Germany). here is the core subgroup which may still be handled to enrich the OS in NBs (Berthold et al., 2017). The short introduction of novel drugs and remedy methods can also assist to clear up this issue.
related to surgical procedure for stage three and four sufferers, there are not any guidelines overlaying the choice of different surgical methods (STR vs. GTR), and the position of surgical procedure on the growth of OS in these patients remains debatable. GTR could be a problem in some stage three and 4 sufferers on account of the bad regular condition, vascular encasement through the tumor, and invasion of adjoining organs. Aggressive operations are constantly accompanied with advantage high risk and may be lifestyles-threatening. there are many difficulties in estimating the role of surgical procedure in stage 3 and 4 NBs, similar to lack of purchasable potential stories, non-standardized evaluation on the extent of surgical resection, transformations in surgeons’ technical skills, and adjustments among hospital situations. the only-middle study continually has a comparatively solid surgical crew and constant description of surgical approach however a small case quantity. despite the fact, multicenter stories may additionally have the contrary advantages and drawbacks. a couple of early studies have shown that GTR could improve the prognosis, but they were frequently single-core stories and had a small case number, and miscellaneous components have been constantly undiscussed (McGregor et al., 2005; La Quaglia et al., 2004; Escobar et al., 2006). besides the fact that children, recent reports have drawn the opposite conclusion. Simon et al. (2013) made a analyze of 278 stage four NBs aged 18 months or older from a German clinical trial and located basic tumor resection had no affect on local handle rate and effect. The radicality of surgery changed into now not found to be greatly linked to superior OS in stage 3 and 4 sufferers in Adeline’s study (Salim et al., 2011). What may still be seen is that new and useful chemotherapy/radiation regimens and the software of novel medicine protocols may conceal the precise outcomes of GTR in stage three and 4 sufferers. The median OS estimate of the GTR neighborhood was longer than that of the STR community, the statistical importance of the Kaplan–Meier survival curves become decided by means of the log-rank verify in our analyze, and multivariate survival analyses confirmed distinct surgical strategies (STR vs. GTR) still had statistically huge change below the Cox regression mannequin with the adjustment of other variables, corresponding to INSS stage, risk group, and MYCN reputation. Our study gives facts aiding the wonderful conclusion and skilled surgeons should make outstanding efforts to obtain GTR in stage three and four NB sufferers. extra standardized studies from each single and distinct centers are crucial to investigate the impact of GTR in stage three and 4 sufferers and provide surgical instructions for the treatment innovations.
Our examine has some limitations. First, this is a single-middle retrospective examine with a relatively small number of NB sufferers, so a large-scale multicenter examine is required to examine our findings. second, there may be selective bias within the percentage of MYCN amplification in our NB sufferers. ultimate, the number of patients misplaced to observe-up may additionally have some effects on the mean survival estimates and the comparison of survival quotes for the GTR group and STR group in stage 3 and four patients.Conclusions
In abstract, we report a huge series of NBs in japanese China and make a comprehensive study concerning the clinicopathological elements, MYCN reputation, surgical management, and follow-up. We discover that MYCN amplification is an independently adverse prognostic ingredient in chinese NB patients at ranges three and four. GTR is carefully associated with stronger OS in comparison with STR in these types of patients, which may also book the premier option of surgical methods and a stability of chance and resection extent in these advanced-stage sufferers. The OS of stage 4 NBs with MYCN amplification is extremely bad, which may additionally merit extra unique risk stratification and greater effective treatment innovations.Supplemental assistance The uncooked facts of Kaplan–Meier survival curves for 262 NB sufferers with distinctive levels
outcome: 1, dead of sickness, 0, alive or misplaced comply with-up.The raw facts of Kaplan–Meier survival curves for NB patients (n = 262) with distinctive MYCN reputation
MYCN repute: N, unamplified, A, amplified;
outcomes:1, useless of disorder, 0, alive or lost follow-up.The Kaplan–Meier survival curves for stage three NB patients (n = fifty eight) with distinctive MYCN repute
outcome:1, dead of ailment, 0, alive or misplaced observe-up;
MYCN popularity;N, unamplified, A, amplified.The Kaplan–Meier survival curves for stage 4 sufferers (n = one hundred thirty five) with distinctive MYCN repute
outcomes:1, lifeless of disease, 0, alive or misplaced follow-up; MYCN popularity:U, unamplified, A, amplified.The uncooked statistics of Kaplan-Meier survival curves within the 169 stage 3 and 4 NB patients with different surgical strategies (STR vs. GTR) and diverse MYCN popularity, and univariate and multivariate analyses of OS rates in these patients
Age: 0, <three hundred and sixty five days, 1, 12–60 months, 2, ≥60 months;
sex:0, male, 1, feminine;
web site:0, adrenal gland, 1, mediastinum, 2, others;
Stage:0, three, 1, 4
; chance:0, intermediate-risk, 1, excessive-chance;
effect: 1, useless of ailment, 0, alive or misplaced follow-up;
Autologous stem cell transplantation:0, no, 1, sure;
Radiation: 0, no, 1, sure;
diploma of differentiation:0, undifferentiated subtype, 1, poorly differentiated subtype, 2, differentiating subtype;
UH or FH: 0, UH,1, FH;
MYCN popularity: 0, amplified, 1, unamplified;
Surgical methods: 0, gross complete resection, 1, subtotal resection.
Parkinson’s disorder (PD) is a common modern neurodegenerative ailment that's characterized by means of lack of dopaminergic neurons peculiarly within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), clinically determined clinically on the foundation of cardinal motor facets equivalent to resting tremor, bradykinesia, postural instability and muscular tension (Alexander, 2004). then again, there are non-motor indicators including sleep-linked disturbances, behavioral impairments and autonomic dysfunction (ad), which can be because of the involvement of areas apart from SNpc (Chaudhuri & Schapira, 2009; Verbaan et al., 2007). These indicators have a big impact on sufferers’ nice of existence and may be expertise medical markers of PD’s premotor part (Todorova, Jenner & Chaudhuri, 2014).
advert together with deficits in gastrointestinal, urinary, thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, pupillomotor systems and sexual function has been considered a part of superior PD (Asahina et al., 2013). although, contemporary facts suggests that it might seem within the early levels of the sickness, even years before a patient items with classical motor aspects of PD (Hawkes, Tredici & Braak, 2010). With a occurrence up to 80%, a large number of studies have confirmed that ad has a great have an effect on on satisfactory of existence in PD people (Bostantjopoulou et al., 2016; Merola et al., 2017). for this reason, early analysis and constructive medicine might reduce long-term morbidity and increase the usual effect (Goldstein, 2014). Questionnaires are convenient tools for subjective assessment of autonomic symptoms and can be used as screening strategies for advert in PD (Mantarova et al., 2013). Scales for effects in Parkinson’s disease-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT) is probably the most commonplace questionnaire, created by way of Visser et al. (2004) in 2004 for evaluation of dysfunctions linked to the autonomic anxious gadget in PD patients. SCOPA-AUT carries 25 questions assessing autonomic clinical signs in six classes together with gastrointestinal (7 gadgets), urinary (6 objects), cardiovascular (three objects), thermoregulatory (four objects), pupillomotor (1 item) and sexual characteristic (3 gadgets for guys and 2 gadgets for girls) (Visser et al., 2004).
To increase the usage of autonomic signs as markers for diagnosing PD or beginning adjacent life-vogue changes and medicine, we need to put together diverse modalities akin to subjective questionnaires, imaging strategies, etc. to examine these deficits. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) is a non-invasive device for evaluating white count number adjustments, notably in neurodegenerative disorders including PD (Basser, Mattiello & LeBihan, 1994). considering everyday DTI measures have some limitations, connectometry is used as a novel analytical strategy with well-known advancements, the use of the theory of native connectome (Wen et al., 2016; Yeh, Badre & Verstynen, 2016). The native connectome is described with the aid of the diploma of connectivity (it is defined with the aid of the density of the diffusing spins) between voxels within a fascicle (Yeh, Badre & Verstynen, 2016). for that reason, critical variables will also be inspected for tremendous associations with native connectomes.
within the existing look at, we aimed to assess the correlation between SCOPA-AUT rating (alongside six subscores) and microstructural changes in white rely tracts in drug-naïve patients with Parkinson’s disorder with Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage I and II, to shed light on primary results of advert.substances and methods members
members worried during this look at had been recruited from the Parkinson’s progression Markers Initiative (PPMI, http://www.ppmi-info.org/). The examine became authorized by the institutional review board of all participating sites in Europe, together with Attikon school sanatorium (Greece), health center hospital de Barcelona and sanatorium Universitario Donostia (Spain), Innsbruck school (Austria), Paracelsus-Elena clinic Kassel/tuition of Marburg (Germany), Imperial faculty London (UK), Pitié-Salpêtrière health facility (France), university of Salerno (Italy), and in the united states, including Emory university, Johns Hopkins school, university of Alabama at Birmingham, PD and movement disorders center of Boca Raton, Boston tuition, Northwestern tuition, school of Cincinnati, Cleveland medical institution basis, Baylor faculty of medicine, Institute for Neurodegenerative issues, Columbia tuition clinical core, Beth Israel scientific middle, university of Pennsylvania, Oregon health & Science tuition, tuition of Rochester, college of California at San Diego, college of California, San Francisco. Written advised consent was obtained from all contributors before analyze enrollment. The look at become carried out in keeping with principal guidelines and rules. These members had been established and proven terrible for any neurological disorders aside from PD. The members’ PD repute became established by using stream sickness Society-Unified Parkinson’s disorder score Scale (MDS-UPDRS), and the loss of dopaminergic neurons changed into accompanied on DAT scans. handiest drug-naïve PD sufferers in early levels of the ailment had been investigated in this look at. topics had been most effective excluded if imaging failed particular first-rate manage standards. Motor severity was evaluated using UDPRS-III. Montreal Cognitive assessment (MoCA) changed into used to investigate world cognitive function. 15-item geriatric melancholy scale (GDS) and The school of Pennsylvania scent Identification verify (UPSIT) had been used to consider neuropsychiatric and olfaction feature fame respectively.facts acquisition
records used within the practise of this article had been got from the Parkinson’s progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database (http://www.ppmi-data.org/records) (Marek et al., 2011). This dataset changed into got on a 3 Tesla Siemens scanner, producing sixty four Diffusion MRI (repetition time = 7,748 MS, echo time = 86 ms; voxel size: 2.0 × 2.0 × 2.0 mm3; container of view = 224 × 224 mm) at b = 1,000 s/mm2 and one b0 picture together with a 3D T1-weighted structural scan (repetition time = 8.2 ms, echo time = three.7 ms; flip attitude = 8° , voxel measurement: 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 mm3; box of view = 240 mm, acquisition matrix =240 × 240).Diffusion MRI processing
The Diffusion MRI data had been corrected for subject motion, eddy current distortions, and susceptibility artifacts as a result of the magnetic box inhomogeneity the use of discover DTI toolbox (Leemans et al., 2009). We performed high-quality manage evaluation on the subjects’s alerts in response to the goodness-of-healthy price given in QSDR reconstruction of fibers. each and every QSDR reconstruction file has a goodness-of-healthy value quantified by R2. for instance, an R82 shows a goodness-of-healthy between the discipline and template of 0.eighty two complete. We excluded cases by which the R2 price did not attain a threshold of 0.6 in any other case.Diffusion MRI connectometry
The diffusion data had been reconstructed in the MNI area using q-house diffeomorphic reconstruction to achieve the spin distribution function (SDF) (Yeh & Tseng, 2011).
Connectometry is a novel approach within the evaluation of diffusion MRI signals that readily tracks the correlation of white remember fibers with a variable of hobby. Connectometry approach extracts the SDF in a given fiber orientation, as a measure of water density alongside that route. There are a large number of diffusion indices derived from spin density i.e., SDF, quantitative anisotropy (QA) being certainly one of them (Yeh, Tang & Tseng, 2013). QA of each fiber orientation gives the peak value of water density in that path or tracts with gigantic correlation to a variable of pastime.
Diffusion MRI connectometry was used to look at the impact of SCOPA-AUT and its subscores. A multiple regression model was used to examine correlation of SCOPA-AUT score, and gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor, and sexual subscores with white rely QA, in a complete of 85 PD patients, from each and every of both businesses, due to the fact age, sex, GDS, MoCA, handedness, number of loved ones with PD and UPDRS-III as covariates within the model. The SDF was normalized. A T-rating threshold of two.5 turned into assigned to opt for local connectomes, and the native connectomes were tracked the usage of a deterministic fiber tracking algorithm. A length threshold of forty mm become used to choose tracks. The seeding density changed into 50 seeds per mm3. To estimate the false discovery rate, a complete of two,000 randomized permutation became applied to the neighborhood label to reap the null distribution of the track length. The evaluation became carried out using publicly purchasable application DSI Studio (http://dsi-studio.labsolver.org).Statistical evaluation
Demographic records were analyzed the use of IBM SPSS statistics for windows, edition 22 (IBM Corp., Armonk, N.Y., country). Compliance of variables with standard distribution become validated with probability photos and Shapiro–Wilk test. Pearson’s chi-square changed into used to check nominal variables throughout PD subgroups. impartial-pattern t test (for variables with common distribution) and Mann–Whitney U check (for variables devoid of general distribution) were used to investigate ameliorations between organizations. P values under 0.05 were regarded statistically significant.effects Demographic and clinical Findings
In total, this analyze blanketed eighty five topics with PD recruited from the PPMI database with respectable pleasant baseline DWI data. among the eighty five PD sufferers, 38 patients had been in Hoehn & Yahr stage 1 (HY1PD) and 47 patients have been in stage 2 (HY2PD). not one of the contributors scored under the reduce-off score for MoCA to be marked as demented. The suggest disorder duration changed into related between HY1PD and HY2PD patients (p = , 0.117). Demographic and medical records are offered in table 1. there were no significant community changes in age (p = 0.09), gender distribution (p = 0.264), handedness (p = 0.sixty seven), or years of training (p = 0.189). there have been additionally no large ameliorations when evaluating commonplace cognitive characteristic (p = 0.571), depressive disorder (p = 0.518) and olfaction dysfunction (p = 0.055). As anticipated, the HY2PD patients had finest motor severity in accordance with UPDRS-III rating (p < 0.001).desk 1:
Demographic assistance of sufferers with Parkinson’s disorder.characteristic HY1PD (n = 38) HY2PD (n = forty seven) P cost Age, imply (SD) [95% CI], y fifty five.7 (8.2) [53.0–58.4] 59.0 (9.3) [56.2–61.8] 0.090a female/male, No. (%male) 17/21 (fifty two.3) 15/32 (sixty eight.1) 0.264b Left-exceeded/correct-handed, No.(%correct-handed) 2/35 (ninety two.1) 4/forty (85.1) 0.678b training, mean (SD) [95% CI], y 14.7 (2.8) [13.8–15.6] 15.5 (2.7) [14.7–16.3] 0.189a disease period, mean (SD) [95% CI], y 5.2 (5.2) [3.4–6.9] 7.9 (7.8) [5.6–10.2] 0.117c UPRDS-III, imply (SD) [95% CI] 15.three (6.0) [13.3–17.3] 24.9 (8.2) [22.5–27.3] <0.001a MOCA, suggest (SD) [95% CI] 27.6 (2.0) [27.0–28.2] 27.9 (1.eight) [27.3–28.4] 0.571c GDS, mean (SD) [95% CI] 4.5 (1.0) [4.2–4.9] 4.three (1.four) [3.9–4.7] 0.518c UPSIT, mean (SD) [95% CI] 26.2 (6.three) [24.2–28.3] 22.9 (9.0) [20.2–25.5] 0.055a SCOPA-AUT score, suggest (SD) [95% CI] 7.four (5.four) [5.6–9.2] 9.7 (5.8) [8.0–11.4] 0.039c assorted regression analysis
results from diverse regression fashions in Diffusion MRI connectometry published areas the place white count number QA become correlated with SCOPA-AUT ranking in each and every neighborhood after adjustment for age, sex, GDS and MoCA rankings, number of spouse and children with PD and UPDRS-III. The SCOPA-AUT ranking may predict the optimum variety of fibers with giant advantageous/poor correlation within the QA, within the multiple regression fashions in HY1PD. The physique, genu and splenium of corpus callosum (CC) and bilateral cingulum had significant terrible correlation (FDR = 0.0168067), and bilateral corticospinal tract had giant high quality correlation with SCOPA-AUT scores in HY1PD (FDR = 0.0404073) (Figs. 1 and a pair of). Genu of CC, bilateral cingulum, center cerebellar peduncle, bilateral superior cerebellar peduncle and left corticospinal tract confirmed tremendous bad correlation in QA with SCOPA-AUT score in HY2PD (FDR = 0.0355872) (Fig. 3). finally, we have used the same analysis for every subscore of SCOPA-AUT and the effects are presented in desk 2.determine 1: White be counted pathways with significantly poor association with SCOPA-AUT in HY1PD sufferers (FDR = 0.0168067). (A) left cingulum, (B) right cingulum, (C) genu, (D) splenium, and (E) physique of corpus callosum. figure 2: White be counted pathways with vastly superb affiliation with SCOPA-AUT in HY1PD sufferers (FDR = 0.0404073). (A) right corticospinal tract, (B) left corticospinal tract. figure three: White rely pathways with tremendously terrible affiliation with SCOPA-AUT in HY2PD patients (FDR = 0.0355872). (A) correct cingulum, (B) appropriate supra cerebellar peduncle, (C) left cingulum, (D) left supra cerebellar peduncle, (E) center cerebellar peduncle, (F) genu, and (G) left corticospinal tract. table 2:
White rely tracts showing huge correlation with each and every autonomic function in Parkinson’s ailment sufferers.Autonomic characteristic* ± huge tracts Gastrointestinal − middle cerebellar peduncle, Bilateral Cingulum, physique and Genu and Splenium CC, Bilateral Corticospinal Tract Pupillomotor − Bilateral Cingulum, body and Genu CC, Fornix, Left ILF Sexual − core cerebellar peduncle, Bilateral Cingulum, physique and Genu CC, Bilateral Frontopontine Tract, Bilateral IFOF Thermoregulatory − center cerebellar peduncle, Bilateral Cingulum, body and Genu and Splenium CC, Bilateral UF, Bilateral ILF, correct AF Urinary + Bilateral Cingulum, body and Genu CC, Fornix, Left ILF dialogue
within the current look at, we aimed to examine the affiliation between SCOPA-AUT ratings and microstructural alterations of the relevant anxious system, attempting to find advert footprints in early levels of PD. The connectometry analysis published that SCOPA-AUT rating has a negative association with the connectivity within the CC and cingulum bilaterally, in each HY1PD and HY2PD groups. additionally, there become poor association between SCOPA-AUT and structural mind connectivity in center cerebellar peduncle, advanced cerebellar peduncle bilaterally and left corticospinal tract in HY2PD patients. These outcomes imply that in early PD, autonomic dysfunction might possibly be associated with deficits within the outlined tracts, preceding the involvement SNpc involving motor signs. apparently, a positive affiliation become accompanied between bilateral corticospinal tract connectivity and SCOPA-AUT in HY1PD patients. it is hypothesized that the wonderful association with this tract could be as a result of the compensation mechanism following the decreased function of worried components of the brain.
Parkinson’s disorder brings too lots burden on sufferers’ lives. This burden results from both motor and non-motor impairments. besides the fact that children fresh stories have proven that non-motor points are accountable for a considerable proportion of the disabilities, our knowledge about their homes and building remains inadequate (Chaudhuri, Healy & Schapira, 2006; Merola et al., 2017; Muller et al., 2013). additionally, on the grounds that a proportion of non-motor symptoms are treatable, besides having extra knowledge of their pathophysiology and the possibility of early prognosis, they could play an important role in PD treatment (Verbaan et al., 2007). SCOPA-AUT is a positive tool for assessing autonomic signs in PD. youngsters, like another marker, it can not accomplish the four key properties of a prodromal diagnostic marker by myself: walk in the park, specificity, applicable lead-time and value (Postuma & Berg, 2016). Our outcomes suggest that SCOPA-AUT score is associated with altered connectivity in definite white matter tracts. therefore the subjective assessment and DMRI findings may be put together to help ad as a potential diagnostic prodromal marker.
As mentioned up to now, advert can latest with a large number of indicators attributable to the involvement of a considerable number of techniques. as an instance, a couple of reports have investigated the incidence and relative possibility of getting constipation, which is the most usual autonomic-connected symptom in PD sufferers (Gao et al., 2011; Lin et al., 2014; Savica et al., 2009). These experiences suggest that with a prevalence of 15–20% amongst healthy individuals and a relative risk of two–3, constipation may occur 20 or extra years before constructing PD, but lacks suitable specificity or predictive value for PD (Postuma & Berg, 2016; Savica et al., 2009). it is hypothesized that for the reason that the have an impact on of the vagus nerve decreases within the rostrocaudal path, gastrointestinal indicators such as constipation extra doubtless reflects the involvement of the enteric apprehensive device (Coon, Cutsforth-Gregory & Benarroch, 2018). definitely, few experiences have investigated important neuropathology of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD from an imaging factor (Abbott et al., 2001; Kaufmann & Goldstein, 2013). although, for the primary time we have pronounced colossal poor correlations between gastrointestinal subscore of SCOPA-AUT and sure tracts (together with middle cerebellar peduncle, bilateral cingulum, physique and genu and splenium CC and bilateral corticospinal tract). Our outcomes indicate that white matter transformations may also make contributions to advert in PD patients.
in addition, studies by using Plouvier et al. (2014) and Schrag et al. (2015) confirmed that sufferers with urinary dysfunction are at higher risk for setting up PD, with a relative chance of 2.3 and strange ratio of 1.9, respectively. other experiences have tested that bladder dysfunction is associated with disorder severity and progresses as PD develop into more superior (Araki et al., 2000). Bladder hyperactivity in PD is additionally linked to phone loss in substantia nigra (Yoshimura et al., 2003). we've shown that the urinary subscore of SCOPA-AUT is positively correlated with definite white depend tracts, proposing a role for altered connectivity in autonomic dysfunction. These findings imply that akin to gastrointestinal symptoms, urinary dysfunction probably has a low specificity, but being convenient to monitor, may be utilized in combination with other symptoms and markers to make an appropriate screening test.
nonetheless, few reports have investigated sexual dysfunction as a symptom of autonomic nervous system impairment (Gao et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2017). as an example, Gao et al. (2007) showed that compared to guys and not using a erectile dysfunction, these with erectile dysfunction have a relative chance of three.eight for establishing PD. moreover, impaired sexual habits, arousal and orgasm however now not sexual fantasy, are observed in PD (Yu et al., 2004). Dopaminergic mechanisms are likely involved in sexual characteristic (Kaufmann & Goldstein, 2013). besides the fact that children, the exact pathogenesis of sexual dysfunction in PD remains doubtful. we've validated that alterations in white matter tracts including the center cerebellar peduncle, bilateral cingulum, physique and genu of corpus callosum could be involved during this regard.
Cardiovascular symptoms are additionally prevalent in patients with PD. for example, a few experiences have proven that individuals with orthostatic hypertension have extended risk of constructing PD (Gibbons & Freeman, 2015; Schrag et al., 2015). one more analyze by way of Postuma et al. (2015) showed that in sufferers with idiopathic fast eye flow (REM) sleep behavior sickness (RBD), larger baseline cardiovascular SCOPA-AUT is linked to improved chance of constructing PD. additionally, Pyatigorskaya et al. (2016) used DTI to examine cardiac-connected advert correlation with medulla oblongata damage. Their outcomes counseled a powerful correlation between mind stem hurt and ad in patients with PD. interestingly, not like different classes we did not find any massive correlation between the cardiovascular subscore of SCOPA-AUT and white depend adjustments. This should be would becould very well be the outcome of a extra favourite role of cardiac sympathetic denervation and brain stem hurt in cardiovascular dysfunction in PD (Kamagata et al., 2012).
The cingulum has a few white depend tracts projecting from the cingulate gyrus (and some of the vital elements of limbic system) and has been proposed to be concerned in PD. outdated investigations have printed huge cingulum atrophy in early PD, besides its role in visuospatial processing, reminiscence access and REM sleep dysfunction (hall et al., 2016; Lim et al., 2016; Tessa et al., 2014). Kamagata et al. (2012) mentioned diminished fractional anisotropy (FA) in both the anterior and posterior cingulate fibers in PD sufferers with dementia compared to controls. furthermore, microstructural adjustments in cingulum and olfaction dysfunction in early PD patients and REM sleep habits disease are said (Ansari et al., 2017; Rahmani & Aarabi, 2017). In 2016, Duncan et al. (2016) pronounced the involvement of cingulate gyrus and its white count connections in PD-linked cognitive dysfunction, even before grey be counted loss became evident. in the latest examine, we now have found large correlations between cingulum connectivity and SCOPA-AUT score in both H&Y 1 and 2 levels, anyway all other subscores except the cardiovascular. placing together the essential role of the cingulate in legislation of autonomic function and the effects of our study, it suggests the cingulum as a inclined area it truly is concerned in early PD, specially in those patients with autonomic symptoms.
The fornix is a collection of fibers appearing as an incredible connection for the hippocampus. however not all axons in the fornix originate from hippocampus, its integrity is linked to the integrity of hippocampus and reduced fornix FA is accompanied in topics with hippocampal atrophy (Kantarci, 2014). Our consequences show that there are gigantic correlations between urinary subscores and connectivity fornix. old stories have additionally tested the function of hippocampus in autonomic movements (Goswami, Frances & Shoemaker, 2011; Norton, Luchyshyn & Shoemaker, 2013).
The cerebellum, with its key position in vestibular action and somatomotor coordination, has been favourite to have important influences on autonomic characteristic, comparable to controlling blood force (Macey et al., 2015; Rector, Richard & Harper, 2006). we have additionally supplied proof for white count alternations in cerebellar peduncles, that have been significantly correlated with total SCOPA-AUT rating besides gastrointestinal, sexual and thermoregulatory subscores in PD patients. These effects indicate that cerebellum-related adjustments in PD can be vastly correlated with comorbidities comparable to advert.
an instantaneous correlation between mini-mental popularity (MMSE) ranking of PD sufferers and adjustments in DTI tractography in corpus callosum is suggested (Wiltshire et al., 2010). In 2016, Zhang et al. (2016) reported improved boost of radial diffusivity of corpus callosum in PD sufferers all over PD progression evaluating with common in shape subjects. The CC also performs a job in motor points of PD, and microstructural CC adjustments are regarding freezing of gait and bradykinesia (hall et al., 2016). As cingulum, CC and other outlined tracts have favourite roles in the pathogenesis of PD, the association of reduced connectivity and expanded SCOPA-AUT score that changed into cautioned by using this examine can pave the way for future use of prodromal components in the prognosis of PD.
regarding the strength of the conclusion, a couple of limiting elements may still be considered together with the confined number of situations and shortage of comply with-up. in addition, SCOPA-AUT score includes distinctive autonomic indicators. however the correlation between certain categories of symptoms and imaging findings become assessed during this study, extra opinions using different tools and clinical finding would be of superb cost.Conclusion
evaluation of microstructural alterations in PD is becoming a magnificent formula and should expectantly shed light on the footprints of the sickness initiation and path. To the best of our skills, here is the primary study investigating the correlation of ad and white be counted connectivity in PD sufferers. This examine revealed a bad affiliation between SCOPA-AUT ranking and the connectivity in cingulum bilaterally, genu of corpus callosum, center cerebellar peduncle, advanced cerebellar peduncle bilaterally and left corticospinal tract. additional reports are crucial with a view to put together these markers and cut back the big burden of PD on patients and society.
IBMSPSSMBPDA exam Dumps Source : IBM SPSS Modeler - Business(R) Partner Data Analyst Associate
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ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [746 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1525 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [23 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [25 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [363 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [265 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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