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70-343 - Managing Projects with Microsoft Project 2013 - Dump Information

Vendor : Microsoft
Exam Code : 70-343
Exam Name : Managing Projects with Microsoft Project 2013
Questions and Answers : 101 Q & A
Updated On : December 15, 2017
PDF Download Mirror : [70-343 Download Mirror]
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70-343 Questions and Answers

70-343


  1. Enter a status date for the task.

  2. Enter 0 in remaining duration.

  3. Reschedule uncompleted work for the project schedule.

  4. Click on the task, and then click 100% complete.


Answer: B


QUESTION: 93

Your project managers manage several projects using Project Professional 2013. Each individual project contains a saved baseline. You need to capture in the master project the baseline data from the member projects at the summary levels for reporting purposes. What should you do?


  1. Create a Master project and insert all of the individual projects without an update link. View the Baseline in the Tracking Gantt view, and view the baseline values in the Usage table.

  2. Open all of the projects and create a New Window view. View the baseline in the Tracking Gantt view, and view the baseline data on the Variance table.

  3. Turn on the option Inserted projects are calculated like summary tasks. Create a Master project and insert all of the individual projects without an update link. View the Baseline in the Tracking Gantt view, and view the baseline values in the Usage table.

  4. Create a Master project and insert all of the individual projects with an update link. Save a baseline in the Master Project. View the Baseline in the Tracking Gantt view, and view the baseline values in the Variance table.


Answer: D


QUESTION: 94

You manage a project by using Project Professional 2013. The Indicators column in the Gantt Chart view shows that there are overallocated resources for a task. A resource is assigned to multiple tasks at 100% on a specific day, totaling 2.5 hours of work for the day. The resource has availability of 8 hours for the day. You need to solve this problem. What should you add to the task?


  1. A deadline

  2. A Finish to Start relationship

  3. A Finish to Finish relationship

  4. More work


Answer: B


QUESTION: 95

You are managing a project by using Project Professional 2013, and you notice a potential scheduling problem indicated by wavy red lines under some of the dates in the Finish column. You need to resolve the issue.

What should you do?


  1. Recalculate the project schedule.

  2. Adjust the resource assignment on the task to when the resource is available.

  3. Activate Task Inspector for the task to decide if adjustments are necessary.

  4. Adjust the finish date on the task to a date in the future.


Answer: C


QUESTION: 96

You use Project Professional 2013 to manage a project for your organization. You are tracking work in a project which contains a baseline and resource assignments. You want to view the work variance for a specific resource for a specific task. You need to choose a view that will show this information. What should you do?


  1. View the Resource Sheet that shows the Work table.

  2. View the Gantt chart in split view with Task form formatted to show Work Details.

  3. View the Resource Sheet view and insert the Work Variance field.

  4. View the Task Usage view and insert the Work Variance column on the left side of the view.


Answer: D


QUESTION: 97

You are a project manager who uses Project Professional 2013. You manage a software development project and have baselined the project. Your Project Management Office (PMO) requires you to capture the actual hours per resource for each task in your project schedule. You use these weekly actual hours to generate a weekly report for your project sponsor. Your resources report their actual hours each Friday. You need to enter the hours in your Project Schedule on a weekly basis. What should you do?


  1. Choose Resource Usage view, add an Actual Work row, and enter total weekly hours per assignment in the appropriate week.

  2. Display the Team Planner view, add an Actual Work column, and enter total weekly hours for each task.

  3. Choose Gantt Chart view, add a Work column, and enter total weekly hours for each task.

  4. Choose Resource Form view, right-click to view Work Details, and enter total weekly hours for each task.


Answer: A


QUESTION: 98

You use Project Professional 2013 to manage a project that has customer-required milestone completion dates. You need to see graphically that your milestones have slipped beyond your customer-required dates. What should you add to the project milestones?


  1. a Must finish on constraint

  2. a finish date

  3. a deadline

  4. a Finish no later than constraint


Answer: C


QUESTION: 99

You manage a project by using Project Professional 2013. Your project is updated with changes to the baseline for selected tasks. You back up your project fife before you start your next tracking cycle. After completing the tracking cycle, you notice that the baseline duration values on some of the summary tasks are not correct. You need to correct these values before re-entering the tracking data. You open the backed up version of the project schedule. What should you do next?


  1. Manually update the summary tasks with the new duration values.

  2. Reset the summary tasks to manual scheduling.

  3. Ensure the tasks durations are of the same denomination values. Then reenter the tracking data.

  4. Reset the baseline checking the Roll up baselines to all summary tasks option. Then reenter the tracking data.


Answer: D


QUESTION: 100

You are a program manager. Your project managers use Project Professional 2013 to manage projects. The project managers want to utilize the same resources across their projects. You need to combine the projects, as well as the project resources, to see allocations across the projects. What should you do?


  1. Copy and paste all resource assignments into a Master file.

  2. Share resources from an external resource pool.

  3. Create a Master project and insert subprojects by using Link to project.

  4. Open all projects in a new window.


Answer: B


QUESTION: 101

Your company uses Project Standard 2013 to track project progress. You need to accurately calculate cost performance index (CPI) as a health indicator. Which three actions should you perform? (Each correct answer presents part of the solution. Choose three.)


  1. Ensure there is a value in the Status Date field.

  2. Ensure there is a value in the Standard Rate field.

  3. Ensure Task Dependencies exist in the schedule.

  4. Enter actual progress information.

  5. Level resources within available slack.


Answer: A, B, D


Microsoft 70-343 Exam (Managing Projects with Microsoft Project 2013) Detailed Information

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Article by ArticleForge

Assessment of knowledge of cancer and lymphoedema among breast cancer survivors

Aim: To evaluate the knowledge of breast cancer and lymphoedema symptoms among mastectomy survivors.

Material and methods: The research was carried out in the Centre of Oncology Branch in Cracow. The survey comprised 60 hospitalized patients as well as 30 healthy subjects from the Małopolska region. The scientific method used was a specially designed questionnaire.

Results: Women with a history of cancer demonstrate a health-oriented approach. The subjects known as the experimental group perform breast self-examinations, regularly visit a gynaecologist, are aware of the most severe mastectomy complication – lymphoedema, and recognize the impact of physical activity on it. Breast cancer operation survivors have a good knowledge of breast cancer and lymphoedema, however, existing shortcomings in practical issues are worrying. On the contrary, the control group neglects regular check-ups, evaluates its own knowledge as negligible and, most surprisingly, is not interested in the subject of breast cancer and lymphoedema, even though the subjects of the group believe that arm swelling is connected to all types of breast cancer surgeries.

Conclusions: Breast cancer survivors have a good knowledge of their disorder but are still lacking some essential information. Respondents from the control group have a limited knowledge in the field of cancer and lymphoedema, are not interested in breast cancer matters and are not encouraged by gynaecologists to perform breast self-examinations. Educational prevention programs should develop a health-oriented approach among all women and emphasize their basic role in therapy.

Article by ArticleForge

Ask The Expert: MS Project 2013 Certification Tests 74-343 & 74-344

Inquiry from MPUG Linkedin group:What can you tell us about the new MS Project 2013 certification tests?  Any study tips?

Answer:Microsoft has issued the availability of two new Microsoft Project 2013 certification tests.  The tests are:

74-343 – Managing Projects with Microsoft Project 2013

74-344 – Managing Programs and Projects with Project Server 2013

I took (and passed) the 74-343 desktop test last week and thought it would be helpful to pass along what I observed and a few study suggestions.  The two tests have very similar formats and standards.

At the start of the 74-343 exam, you will see a screen that will tell you that the test contains 54 questions and you are allowed 2 hours to take the test; the 74-344 test contains 52 questions and also has a 2 hour time limit.  You will then answer some questions regarding your current experience and knowledge level using MS Project 2013.  There is also an optional tutorial for taking the test.  The survey and tutorial do not take away from the time allotted to take the test.

Most of the questions are multiple choice, but there are a few questions where you will need to place answers in the order in which you would perform an operation.

The question style is from a problem solving  point-of-view.  The questions are oriented around real-life situations, asking how you would use the software. You will be given a problem condition and asked to supply the best resolution for the situation.    An example of this type of question would be:

You need to make dinner.  What should you do to achieve this?

A.  Read a book

B.  Call for hotel reservations

C.  Have coffee with a friend

D.  Get some food out and start cooking

To study for the test:

  • Start with the test objectives provided in the links above.  If the topic is in the objectives, it will be on the test.
  • Seek out and learn the new features of the 2013 software as this information is usually part of the tests.
  • You will be asked questions regarding the best practices of using MS Project – what is the best way to accomplish an objective.  Usually a good reference book will include many of these concepts.   Any reference book which includes the test objectives (which is most of the books) will be helpful.
  • Know the standard software:  views, tables, options, choices on menus, and choices in selection boxes, location of data, use of filters, groupings, existing reports, etc.
  • Taking the test:

  • It is suggested that you arrive at the test facility at least 20 minutes before the scheduled test time.  You will be required to empty your pockets and check your coat, backpack, computer, purse, etc.   You are only permitted to take your glasses and any writing materials they give you into the testing room.  No food or drink is allowed.
  • I was given a small white board and pen by the testing center to work through anything that I might want to write down during the test.  I found this was unnecessary but some candidates might find it helpful.
  • Keep your eye on the upper right corner of the screen at the countdown clock.  Space your time out to make sure you can answer all of the questions.  A question not answered is a wrong answer.  You will have approximately 2 minutes and 22 seconds per question for the 74-343 test.
  • Read the questions carefully.  Understand what the question is asking you before you read the answer choices.  You will be in a better frame of mind to select the correct answer.
  • Some multiple choice questions will require more than one answer to fulfill the complete answer for a question.  Make sure you supply all answers necessary to satisfy the requirements of the question.
  • You can flag questions to return and review them at the end of the test before you indicate that you are finished taking the test.  If a question is confusing or you are not sure of the answer, flag the question to return to it later.
  • At the end of the test you will have an opportunity to comment of the quality and content of the questions.  These comments will be allowed only AFTER you have indicated that the test is completed.  During this time you will not be able to change any of your answers.
  • People in most countries have a choice of heading to a Pearson Vue testing center and scheduling the proctored exam or taking it from their own locations (home or work!) through online proctoring.

    It is my opinion that the MS Project 2013 tests are harder tests than what we have seen for earlier software versions.  Passing these tests will show a thorough understanding of the software.  The more experienced users of MS Project and MS Project Server will be able to pass the tests easier than newer users.   Just memorizing the buttons is not enough to pass these tests.

    Best of luck to you on the test.

  • Article by ArticleForge

    Red Sox's David Ortiz wraps up career of crushing Yankees pitching

    After 240 games and 1,043 plate appearances against the New York Yankees, David Ortiz will begin his final series against them on Tuesday at Yankee Stadium. Few players have had more success than Big Papi while battling the most accomplished MLB franchise in history, both in the Bronx and overall. As he gears up for one last assault on pinstripe pitching, here's a run through of some career stats that have helped entrench Ortiz as an all-time great Yankees opponent.

    David Ortiz's Career Stats vs. Yankees

    Entering Tuesday's three-game series in the Bronx, Ortiz has a .307.397.574 slash line over 884 lifetime at-bats versus the Yankees, to go along with 171 RBIs and 149 runs scored. That .307 average is his highest against any American League team outside of the Astros (who didn't join the AL until 2013) and the Twins (who he played his first six seasons with). While all those stats are robust, contextually they don't move the needle like the next few numbers, which have a chance to get even more impressive with a strong performance this week. 

    - Out of 98 players with at least 200 games played against the Yankees, only Ted Williams, Manny Ramirez and Jimmie Foxx have a higher OPS than Ortiz’s .970. 

    - With 53 homers, Ortiz is tied with Hank Greenberg for fourth-most against the Yankees, sitting just two behind Manny Ramirez for third. Some familiar names sit atop that list, with Williams at 62 and Foxx at 70.

    MORE: David Ortiz having historic final season

    - Ortiz currently ranks third in career doubles versus the Yankees with 75, two behind Ty Cobb. Early-20th century legend Tris Speaker leaves everyone in the dust here, with 95.

    Big Papi in Yankee Stadium

    As Ortiz loads up for his final chance to inflict pain at Yankee Stadium, he can set his sights on some prestigious milestones for Yankees visitors. One long ball would move him out of a tie with Mickey Vernon and match Goose Goslin, a former teammate of Walter Johnson on the Washington Senators, for the most career home runs as a visitor of any Yankee Stadium. 

    >> Side bar here, to point out the curious case of Senators first baseman Mickey Vernon and his 31 Yankee Stadium home runs. Something special lit up in Vernon, a native with just 172 career homers, when he came to the Bronx.  Vernon went deep every 19.6 at-bats in Yankee Stadium compared to one every 57.6 at-bats the rest of his career. In close to the same amount of plate appearances at home against New York, Vernon cleared the fence just seven times. Now back to Ortiz. 

    - Ortiz has five multi-homer games against the Yankees, and all of them have come in the Bronx. He’s tied with Ramirez and Goslin for the most multi-homer games on the road versus the Yankees.

    MORE: Classic photos of Big Papi

    - Ortiz’s OPS of .922 as a Yankees guest is tied with the Tigers’ Charlie Gehringer for third-best among players with at least 500 plate appearances. Ted Williams (1.027) predictably leads the pack, followed by Ty Cobb (1.011).

    Ortiz against Yankee pitchers

    As you'd expect, there's a multitude of Yankees pitchers on the wrong side of Ortiz's greatness. Three of the top seven hurlers Ortiz has notched the most hits against – Andy Pettitte (24), CC Sabathia (18) and Mike Mussina (18) – spent a significant portion of their careers with the Yankees. Ortiz knocked 13 hits off Mariano Rivera, the most Rivera yielded to any batter. Here's some notables Big Papi did serious damage against:

    Hiroki Kuroda:        11-for-23, .478 BA, 1.301 OPS

    Chien Ming Wang:   16-for-39, .410 BA, 1.177 OPS

    Ivan Nova:                10-for-26, .385 BA, 1.197 OPS

    Andy Pettitte:           24-for-70, .343 BA, .907 OPS

    Mariano Rivera:       13-for-38, .342 BA, .875 OPS

    Ortiz in the postseason

    Ortiz’s postseason performance against Boston’s bitter rival gets even better. His 1.065 OPS is second only to George Brett (1.180) among players with at least 50 postseason plate appearances as a Yankees opponent. A .333 average puts him in seventh and is best among Red Sox players. Papi's five postseason homers vs. the Yankees gives him a share of fourth place, and his 17 RBIs are good for third behind Duke Snider (24) and Gil Hodges (19).

    - Ortiz currently has the most walk-off hits in MLB postseason history. The last two of those stamped Boston's first two wins of the 2004 ALCS, sparking their legendary comeback from a 3-0 deficit to beat the Yankees:

    2004 ALCS Game 4 vs NYY:  Walk-off HR off Paul Quantrill in the bottom of the 12th

    2004 ALCS Game 5 vs NYY:  Walk-off single off Esteban Loaiza in the bottom of the 14th

    Walk-off shot

    One final link to the Yankees that highlights Ortiz's iconic status is his inclusion on the ultra-short list of players with 500 home runs and at least three World Series titles. Ortiz is the only non-Yankee with this distinction, grouped with three of the most mythical names the game has seen:

    No one will be surprised if Ortiz supplies a few more memorable moments to this rivalry, while altering the record books, by the time Thursday night is through.

    Article by ArticleForge

    Weed-insect pollinator networks as bio-indicators of ecological sustainability in agriculture. A review

    It is widely recognized that the lack of specialization regarding pollinator-plant relationship in common weeds is due to their persistence in time and space (Rodger et al. 2010). The evolutionary trend from generalization to specialization noted in natural ecosystems (Johnson and Steiner 2000) probably does not match the requirements of weeds that grow in arable lands. In these agro-ecosystems, de-specialization seems to be of pivotal importance for insects visiting weed flowers (Huang 2006). Indeed, de-specialization implies a lower risk of pollinator absence due to disturbance (Desneux et al. 2007). Thus, while specialization leads to optimal interaction in a particular ecological niche, it may be a disadvantage when climatic and agronomic conditions impair the appropriate functioning of the insect-weed relationships. Therefore, the specialization occurring among given weeds and insect pollinators could explain their rarity (Sutcliffe and Kay 2000). For instance, the extensive application of pesticides, which is a typical feature of conventional agricultural systems, strongly interferes with the fragile mechanisms that involve rigid insect-flora interactions.

    Predominantly, insect-pollinated species have different degrees of specialization depending on the insects involved (Aigner 2001; Shuttleworth and Johnson 2008). Therefore, features such as floral color and symmetry play a key role in plant-pollinator systems (Giurfa et al. 1999; Cooley et al. 2008). Zygomorphic flowers, such as Consolida regalis Gray (Ranunculaceae), E. vulgare L. (Boraginaceae), L. amplexicaule L., and Stachys arvensis (Lamiaceae), are visited mainly by specialized long-tongued bees (e.g., Anthophoridae, Apidae, Melittidae and Megachilidae). This could be due to the particular position of the nectaries (Nilson 1998). A higher number of species visit actinomorphic flowers. For instance, many Asteraceae (e.g., Centaurea cyanus L., Coleostephus myconis (L.) Rchb. f., and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) are visited by a huge number of unspecialized visitors, such as short-tongued bees (e.g., Andrenidae, Colletidae, and Halictidae) and Diptera. R. raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae) also exhibits the typical floral traits of generalized pollination, such as upright, radially symmetric flowers and exposed reproductive organs (Fenster et al. 2004). Lastly, some insect visits appear limited to a restricted botanical group, as observed for some wild bees (referred to as monolectic or oligolectic (specialists)), which tend to visit a small number of plant families, or genera for pollen (Michener 2007). Polylectic bee species (honey bee, bumblebees) have a generalist foraging behavior, i.e they are, less selective in their choice of flower. In intensive cereal farming systems, a clear segregation pattern in the use of floral resources was found between honey bees and wild bees, with the former being tightly associated with mass-flowering crops (oilseed rape, sunflower) and the latter with semi-natural habitats, grasslands, and grassy strips (Rollin et al. 2013). Bumblebees had an intermediate strategy and were found in both oilseed and semi-natural habitats.

    The most frequent insects on flowers of a given weed are not necessarily the most efficient pollinators. Indeed, the efficiency of insects as pollinators, especially bees, depends on many factors concerning pollen transport and deposit, such as the particular morphology of the insect body parts (e.g., pollen baskets or hairs), pollen moistening, flower structure or movement patterns of insect visitors (e.g., the speed of insects while handling flowers, species specificity) (Michener 2007). For bees, scopal hairs may show further modification in their density and plumosity in relation to the size and structure of the pollen grains. For example, bee species that frequently collect pollen from Boraginaceae (e.g., Colletes nasutus, Andrena nasuta) have hooked hairs to pull pollen away from anthers located deep in a small corolla (Michener 2007). The use of nectar or oil to moisten pollen loads (e.g., such as Panurginae and Mellitidae with sparse scopae, or Apidae with hind tibial corbiculae) permits considerable flexibility in sizes of pollen grains that may be collected (Thorp 1979). However, moistened pollen is less available for pollination than uncompacted dry pollen (Michener 2007) and decreases the pollination efficiency of bee species. The rapid visits performed by long-tongued bees may result in reduced pollen transport (Fenster et al. 2004). However, the electrostatic forces occurring on pollen can guarantee adhesion to the insect, even if it is lacking in hairy structures (Armbruster 2001). Some floral features enhance the pollen transfer during insect visits. A good example is the small hairs on the keel petal of the corolla (i.e., pollen traps): when the flower wilts, the stigma droops down and meets these hairs. Pollen morphology could also modify efficiency of pollen collection (Fig. 3). For example, the length of the spines on cotton pollen physically interfered with the pollen-aggregating process used by Apidae bees (e.g., honey bees, Vaissière and Vinson 1994). Foraging efficiency depends on matching between corolla depth and proboscis length. Foraging rates of bumblebee with long proboscis, even if they are able to utilize a wide variety of corolla depths, are less efficient on plants with short corollas than short-tongued bumblebees (Brian 1957; Ranta and Lundberg 1980; Graham and Jones 1996). This highlights the importance of the evolution of floral characters to facilitate insect landing and improve pollination efficiency (Nyman 1993). In addition, the relation between flower morphology and self- or cross-pollination has also been confirmed in other species (Kalisz et al. 1999). For instance, self-fertilization in Mimulus guttatus DC. (Scrophulariaceae) is affected by the morphology of the lower corolla lip (Arathi and Kelly 2004).

    The foraging activity and the specialization are strongly linked to the relationship between the flowering phenology and the biological traits of visiting insects (Westrich 1989; Fenner 1998; Tylianakis et al. 2005; Michener 2007; Mader et al. 2011). Unlike social bees who are active foragers during many months, adults of many solitary bees are active only for a short season. Thus, they can be specialized on a plant which is in bloom at the same time as their adult flight activity period (Michener 2007; Kirk and Howes 2012). The earliest spring-flying species (e.g., many mining bees such as Andrena chrysoceles, Anthophora plumipes, Osmia rufa with adult flight activity from March to May–June) forage the earliest flowering plants (e.g., Geranium ssp., Lamium ssp.) (Kirk and Howes 2012). On the other hand, the ivy bee (Colletes hederae) is active late in the year (from the end of August for males and from beginning September for females). His emergence coincides with flowering ivy (Hedera helix L.), his main food plant both for pollen and nectar (Michener 2007; Kirk and Howes 2012). For weeds flowering in cool periods, the potential pollinators are represented by insects that can function even at low temperatures, as in the case of early-flowering Amaryllidaceae which are pollinated by cold-tolerant Andrenidae (Herrera 1995). The role of temperature as a limiting factor is confirmed by Campanulaceae which receive fewer pollinator visits as the altitude increases (Blionis and Vokou 2001). In addition, insect pollinators tend to favor peak or early flowerings, while pre-dispersal seed predators tend to favor off-peak or later flowerings (Elzinga et al. 2007). An interesting example of the mutualistic specialization of weed-insect pollinators is Silene noctiflora L. (Caryophyllaceae) with nocturnal moths (Lepidoptera). This gynomonoecious plant has hermaphroditic, pistillate flowers that only open during the night and are pollinated exclusively by nocturnal moths (Davis and Delph 2005). Similarly, Silene alba (Miller) Krause opens its flowers at the end of the day, thereby allowing pollination both by diurnal (e.g., Apidae, Vespidae, Diptera, Syrphidae, and Bombyliidae) and nocturnal visitors (e.g., Noctuidae and Sphingidae) (Young 2002). This “mixed” system is also characteristic of several weeds belonging to Caryophyllaceae (e.g., genera Agrostemma, Saponaria, Dianthus, and Vaccaria) (Jürgens 2006).

    Insect visitor-plant specializations do depend not only on flower traits and flowering phenology (Andersson 2008) but also on nectar composition, in terms of sugars and amino acids, viscosity, and the nectar secretion rate (Corbet 2003). It has been hypothesized that some specialist nectarivores can assimilate sucrose, whereas opportunistic nectar feeders digest only simple hexoses (Dupont et al. 2004). Sugar concentration is a key factor in nectar selection by nectar feeders. Indeed, insect pollinators using viscous dipping, such as solitary and social bees, obtain nectar containing higher sugar concentrations (52 %) than those using a suction method (33 %), like butterflies or hummingbirds (Kim et al. 2011). Moreover, honey bees show strong preferences for warmer and less viscous nectar due to faster ingestion and reduced thermoregulation costs, independently of changes in sugar concentration (Nicolson et al. 2013). Amino acids played a key role in attractiveness to insect pollinators. Different amino acids elicit different responses in insect gustative receptors (Gardener and Gillman 2002). For instance, the adult Lepidoptera’s diet is based exclusively on nectar. Thus, they are attracted to flowers rich with amino acids, especially female butterflies (Alm et al. 1990; Rusterholz and Erhardt 2000; Gardener and Gillman 2002). Honey bees can also alter their feeding selection in response to amino acids present in nectar. They prefer nectars enriched with some amino acids such as proline or glycine than other enriched with alanine and serine (Alm et al. 1990; Bertazzini et al. 2010). The predominance of phenylalanine andor gamma-aminobutyric acid attracts long-tongued bees and hoverflies, whereas asparagine and tryptophan seem repellent to these insects (Petanidou et al. 2006). The amino acid concentration in nectar is not exclusively a function of the weed’s genotype. It can also be affected by agronomic techniques. For instance, nitrogen fertilization increases nectar amino acid concentration in A. githago L. (Caryophyllaceae) (Gardener and Gillman 2001). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can likewise increase the number of flower visitors (mainly Diptera and Hymenoptera) in C. cyanus L. (Asteraceae) (Gange and Smith 2005). Lastly, the ecological significance of the toxic nectar secreted for example by some weeds (e.g., Cuscuta spp. (Convolvulaceae), Euphorbia spp. (Euphorbiaceae), and Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae)) is poorly understood. Nectar alkaloids may be protective agents against generalized flower visitors like Lepidoptera, while favoring bees, which are both more oligotrophic and less susceptible to alkaloids than Lepidoptera (Rhoades and Bergdahl 1981; Baker and Baker 1983; Adler 2000). However, other hypotheses on the ecological context of toxic nectar have been discussed, which has been linked to the costs of plant defence in terms of pollination services (Gegear et al. 2007). Although the alkaloids in the floral nectar tend to reduce visitation by bumblebees, the magnitude of the effect is likely to depend on the availability and nectar properties of alternative flowers.

    The attraction of visiting insects is also linked to the mechanisms involved in flower recognition. The recognition of appropriate flowers is crucial to prevent wasting energy (Fenster et al. 2004). Thus, flower shape and color play a key role in routing insect foraging flights (Menzel and Shmida 1993). Many Brassicaceae species reflect ultraviolet radiation to attract insect pollinators (Yoshioka et al. 2005). Some flower colors are correlated with particular pollinator species, although this cannot be generalized since data from different environments do not necessarily lead to the same conclusion (Petanidou and Lamborn 2005). Specialist bumblebees prefer purple flowers, which seems to confirm the “pollination syndrome” theory (Nakano and Washitani 2003). The “pollination syndrome” is the hypothetical correlative relationship between floral characters (e.g., shapes, structures, colors) and the forager traits of the animal groups serving as flower pollinators. Flower recognition by insects can be facilitated by color patterns. The “search images” system possessed by insects (Goulson 2000) can be aided by characteristic black spots at the base of the petal, functioning as a “nectar guide” (Johnson and Dafni 1998), as observed in P. rhoeas (Papaveraceae). Bright and gaudy colors are not always required to oligotrophic and less susceptible flower visitors. Some Euphorbiaceae have pale green flowers. However, they are frequently visited by insects (e.g., Euphorbia esula L. and Euphorbia helioscopia L. (Euphorbiaceae)) (Larson et al. 2006; Benvenuti S., pers. observ.). Recently, it has been noted that the pale color of flowers, often defined as a feature to attract pollinators, is not maintained by pollen-mediated selection but by another mechanisms. The value of combining experimental pollen supplementation and reductions can be correlated with variation of floral traits, especially in species where compatible pollen receipt is difficult to measure (Campbell and Bischoff 2013). With regard to olfactory and tactile cues, a mechanism for identification and recognition of flowers also consists in the production and emission of volatile compounds, mainly terpenoids and benzenoids (van Schie et al. 2006). The two dominant components of the fragrance of Cirsium species (Asteraceae), benzaldehyde and phenylacetaldehyde, attract several orders of generalist insect pollinators (Theis 2006). Fragrance of their flowers is emitted in dynamic patterns that maximize pollinator attraction (Theis et al. 2007). For instance, generalist pollinators, such as oligolectic bees, often show innate sensory preferences for particular floral scent compounds of their host plant (Wright and Schiestl 2009; Dötterl et al. 2011; Burger et al. 2011). In addition an insect’s preferences for particular flower cues mean that it can actively identify new flower-borne physical and olfactory stimuli (Arak and Enquist 1993; Naug and Arathi 2007). Insects also have learning abilities to associate chemical signals to their food sources (Dukas 2008). Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera are the best examples of olfactory learning in insects (Wright and Schiestl 2009). Finally, using of olfactory signals provides more fitness advantages to both plant and pollinator than using of visual signals alone (Wright and Schiestl 2009).

    Article by ArticleForge

    Xbox One, Fallout 4, Gears of War Bundle for under $300 Coming This Black Friday

    Black Friday is crawling closer, and Dell’s selection of deals are already making the rounds. One of the exclusive deals offers a 500GB Xbox One, a physical copy of Fallout 4, an extra controller, a Gears of War: Ultimate Edition download, and a 3.5mm headset, all for $299.99.

    The set boasts a market value of $469.99, considering the Gears of War: Ultimate Edition Xbox One bundle retails for $350, and Fallout 4 releases this November for $60.

    So far, Dell is the only known outlet offering the discount, with only “limited quantities” available. So when the sale opens up November 26 at 6PM EST, expect bundles to start evaporating into thin air.

    Fallout 4 is one of the most anticipated releases of this Fall, boasting hundreds of gameplay hours, new and improved combat, and more dialogue lines than Skyrim and Fallout 3 combined.

    Check out the rest of Dell’s Black Friday deals, and let us know if you’ll be spending Thanksgiving night vying for this insane bundle.

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